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余秋华,梁振文,张 涛,李雪宜,陈少贞.不同运动技能运动员的主动性和反应性控制表现[J].中国康复医学杂志,2019,(3):280~286
不同运动技能运动员的主动性和反应性控制表现    点此下载全文
余秋华  梁振文  张 涛  李雪宜  陈少贞
中山大学附属第一医院康复医学科,广州,510080
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摘要:
      摘要 目的:探讨开放性和闭合性运动技能的执行功能主动性和反应性控制的表现。 方法:18例开放性技能、18 例闭合性技能运动员和18例普通大学生完成任务转换范式、简单反应测试、数字颜色连线测试(CTT)、威斯康星卡片分类测试(WCST)和台阶测试。任务转换范式反映执行功能的主动性和反应性控制能力,而简单反应测试反映加工速度。数字颜色连线测试和威斯康星卡片分类测试是评估综合执行功能能力。 结果:在任务转换测试中,线索效度和组别因子有显著的交互效应(P<0.050)。在有效线索下,开放性技能组比其他两组时间转换代价小(P<0.050);在无效线索下,开放性和闭合性技能组比对照组时间转换代价小(P<0.010)。三个组的简单反应测试结果没有显著性差异(P>0.050)。CTT结果显示开放性和闭合性技能的运动员的干扰效应指数比正常对照组低(P<0.050),且与时间转换代价呈正相关(P<0.010)。但WCST结果没有组别间的差异(P>0.050),与时间转换代价相关性也不显著(P>0.050)。 结论:开放性技能运动员主动性和反应性控制能力高,但闭合性技能运动员仅反应性控制能力高。开放性运动技能能否有效地治疗主动性和反应性控制障碍需进一步证实。
关键词:主动性控制  反应性控制  执行功能  开放性技能  闭合性技能  运动技能
The performance of different types of motor skills on proactive and reactive controls of executive functions    Download Fulltext
The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080
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Abstract:
      Abstract Objective: To investigate the performance of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on proactive and reactive controls of executive functions. Method: Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm, the simple reaction task, Color Trail Test(CTT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test(WCST), and the Queen’s College step test. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. CTT and WCST tapped on general executive functions. Result: In the task switching paradigm, there was Significant Validity × Group effect(P<0.050). The results of post hoc analysis showed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue with 100% validity (P<0.05), whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue with 50% validity (P<0.01). The results of CTT suggested that the open and closed-skilled groups (P<0.05) have lower Interference Index values than the control groups. The switch cost of the response time for each of the validity conditions were moderately and positively related with the interference index of CTT (P<0.01). There were no significant group differences for the results of WSCT (P>0.050) and no significant correlations between the results of WSCT and the switch cost of response time (P>0.050). Conclusion: These findings suggest that open skilled experts have better ability of proactive and reactive controls for task switching. In contrast, closed skills experts appear to only have better ability of reactive control for task switching. The results of this study suggested that the open motor skills may be the potential effective treatments for proactive and reactive controls dysfunction.
Keywords:proactive control  reactive control  executive function  task switching  open motor skills  closed motor skills
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